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970. 1 
Ind 



INDIANS 

AT • WORK 





Aug vst is, 

A NEWS SHEET FOR INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

OFFICE- OF- INDIAN -AFFAIRS 

WASHINGTON. B.C. 



t H hors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

Earl Ford McNaughton 



INDIANS AT W 0 H K 
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE! 0? AUGU ST 15 , 1934 

Volume II Number 1 

Page 

EDITORIAL 1 

Mary Austin. 7 

Reorienting Indian Education and 
Extension in the Wake of the 

Wheeler-Howard Act. ...... By Ward Shepard 8 

The Drive for Indian Employment. . . . 12 

Three New Appointments to Superintendences .15 

Transfers of Superintendents to become effective 

September 1 ..... . ........ 19 

Indian Homes at Mission Agency ..... 20 

San Carlos Apaches Eight 

the Drought By Claude C. Cornwall . . 22 

A study of Cricket Depredations on 

Eort Hall ~ An ISCW Project . . By H. A. Ireland 26 

Eiold Day at Lac du Flambeau .... By J. R, Mitchell .... 30 

A Year of Progress . ... By William Stemihoh ... 33 

Indian Cook Book ................. ( , # ,35 

Indian Foremen Report on IECW Projects .... 37 



88744 



"The Menunza family lives in a tent on the hill 
about three-quarters of a mile east of the Agency. 
The tent has a home-made three-quarter bed, a small 
stove, a trunk, and a few boxes* There is no mattress 
on the "bed and not enough covers. The floor is covered 
with a few hoards and pieces of cardboard here and 
there. It looked as though it had not been cleaned 
for months. Scraps of everything were lying around." 

This editorial has for its purpose to remind ourselves, in 
the Indian Service, and our friends outside of it, that there is a 
long way yet to go and a desperate need of going faster. 

The family case, described above by a school social worker, 

is generalized, for the tribe in question, as follows: 

"The tents, in which approximately half the families 
live, are usually leaky. The small frame shacks are some- 
what better, but are usually poorly built, with single 
walls, and are dirty and crowded. Quite a number have 
no windows at all, and others only one tiny window high 
under the eaves above the door. Furniture is woefully 
inadequate. Very few families have more than one hed, 
no matter what the size of the family, and a large num- 
ber have only bunks on the ground, or homemade beds with- 
out springs or mattress. Covering is inadequate even for 
the number of persons at home now, and will not nearly 
suffice when the school cnildren are at home." 



]- 



88744 



Are there plans — are there active immediate steps — 
to meet the above state of affairs which is the product of decades 
of directionless maladministration? There are plans, and some mere 
f j- r st st eps are "being taken now. Ninety-nine percent of the re- 
habilitation jot), at this reservation, is in the future. 

We pass to another reservation and quote from the joint 

report of the Indian Service Hospital Administrator and the Indian 

Service District Medical Director: 

"The Superintendent as well as all physicians and 
the Catholic Father at Sisseton state the medical need 
of the Sisseton Indian is very urgent. Father Poland 
states that out of 700 Catholic members of the tribe 
every family has or has had at least one case of tuber- 
culosis and that he personally has buried eleven children 
of one mother, all of whom died of the same disease. It 
is also stated that venereal diseases are prevalent and 
that syphilis is especially virulent in this vicinity. 
There seems to have been very little attempt at control 
of this disease." 



9|C 5jc sjc >Jc sjc jjc S|S J^C S)C 

When ninety-eight Navajo girls came to Santa Fe for nurse aide 
training two months ago, each was presumed to be in fit physical condi- 
tion and to have undergone a previous medical examination. But on 
arrival, the girls were examined for physical defects and no less 
than twenty-five were found to be suffering from active trachoma; 
no less than seven had active tuberculosis; and ten were in need of 
tonsilectomies. 

Why was this state of facts? Illustrative of the 



2 



33744 



reasons, would be the medical set-up at the very hospital where 
they received competent diagnosis -- the Charles F> Lummis Indian 
Hospital at Santa Fe. There, a single physician — and a highly 
competent man he is — is responsible for all medical and surgical 
work .in the sixty-bed hospital; for the routine and emergency 
medical care of two boarding schools with 700 Indian pupils; for 
the field medical service on three reservations forty miles apart J 
and for the keeping of the elaborate records, with the heavy paper 
work, that must go to Washington. And this doctor is without a 
stenographer or clerk, so that he does his own typing and filing. 
The hospital's refrigerating plant would properly meet the neer" 
of a family of six. The wards do not permit effective segregation 
of infective cases. 'The Santa le hospital situation is average or 
better, as Indian Service medical resources go. 

************ 

The yearly turnover of nurses is eleven percent -in the 
Navy and ten percent in the Veterans' Administration. In the 
Indian Service , this turnover is eighty percent . The under- 
supply of nurses "kills off" the nursing staff in the Indian Ser- 
vice at the rate of eighty percent a year. 

The nursing division reports: 

"Long hours, overwork, physical breakdown .... 
impossible to maintain and operate an efficient 
nursing service. These conditions will continue 
and will grow worse, unless provisions can be made 
for additional personnel." 

************ 



88744 



An • under- supply of personnel' ih a -number' of the essen- 
tial field services; an over-centralization of field control at 
the Washington headquarters — a headquarters which itself ' is 
grievously under- staffed; the glacial slowness of the propedures 
of appointment,, involving as these procedures do different offices 
in different i departments at Washington; an' inflexible appropria- 
tion system which continues to impose ancient mistakes on present 
expenditures; these are only some of the reasons why the Indian 
Service continues to. lag, and reorganization seems to go forward 
at a snail' s pace. ■ They are explanations, but they can not perma- 
nently be /excuses. 

•This editorial is not a discussion of reorganization, 
but is meant simply to remind ourselves, and our friends outside 
of the Indian Office who are generous in their appreciations, -of 
how far we must go before we can rest in any sense of secure 
achievement. 



************ 



Fundamental, of course, is the condition of Indian 
poverty, cumulative through lifetimes. The basic causes of 
Indian poverty are now being removed through the Wheeler-Howard 
Act. The poverty remains, and a many-sided effort, on scores of 
reservations, not across months but across years, will be needed 
to turn the tide. 

Indian disorganization and non-organization, and, in 



88744 



the allotted areas, mental resistance to the Government joined 
With mental dependency on the Government, constitute an intangible 
condition as real as physical poverty. Hot only the Wheeler- 
Howard Act, but the whole present policy, is directed against the 
continuance of Indian non-organization, disorganization and mental 
dependency. But these intangibles of social and mental life are 
not changed by any waving of the wand of good intentions. Time, - 
and myriad labor, and nothing less than these, will establish Indian 
self-dependence. 

************ 

One other item, suggestive in yet another direction, is 
here quoted. It is token from a report by the National Association 
on Indian Affairs, Inc.: 

inrt " A l Z ' mi I ° 1ir re P r esentatives went into the arts 
ESdSf ±1 S fl i0n ' With raelaach °ly results. Their 
these i adVanta§60US economic situation of 

ShE>, v \ P11M a P r W dic e against pottery mahing 

his Sd aln^f f ly J Ben nUrt - ed * "-"Indian schoofs), 
ing art" extinction of this one outstand- 

************ 

The generous emergency grants, benefitting as they do the 
Properties of the Indians while employing the Indians and demon- 
strating the Indians- oapaoity to do their own work, yet may have 
an injurious aftermath. These emergency expenditures will diminish 
or will stop entirely. Then, unless the Indian Service has found 
out how to help the Indians carry forward their necessary activities 



88744 



on a voluntary 'basis, there must be anticipated a crumbling away 

of many of the physical improvements and a truly disastrous collapse 

of standard of living and of morale. 

This editorial is not written out of a gloomy mood, but 
because Indian Service must continue to try "to see life steadily 
and see it whole." 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



6 



G3744 



M£EY AUSTIN 

At Santa Fe, on August 14th, died Mary Austin, in her sixty- 
sixth year. 

This woman of genius, of idiosyncracy and of mixed en- 
dowments had appropriated many subjects, served many causes. 
Among- the streams of thought and of mystery which upbore her 
life, were some that will flow till the end of all life. 

Her understanding of the transforming and creative 
power of group influences placed her close to the center of 
thinking of the modern age ■ — and enabled her to diagnose some 
of this age's most troubling maladies,. 

Much of her written work will not live. But fragments 
of it, including some whole books of it, and the tradition of it, 
will have a long future. 

Possibly she was the very first thinker in this country 
to break through all the conventionalized (the stubbornly con- 
ventionalized) views of the Indian, and to be strong enough and 
bold enough to claim for the Indians a universal significance; 
to claim for their spirit a role of its own, and an indispensable 
role, in the future drama of man and earth. J. C. 



7 



88744 



REORIENTING INDIAN E DUCATIO N AND EXTENSI ON IN THE WAKE OE THE WHEELER -. 

HOWA RD ACT 
By Ward Shepard 
Specialist In Land Policy, Indian Service 

One of the chief purposes of the Wheeler-Howard Act - though 
this purpose is not explicitly stated in the Act - is to "bring about 
the actual use "by the Indians of their own lands. Many phases of the 
Act contribute to this end. Security and permanence of land tenure, 
the requirement of proper range and forest management, the credit and 
educational provisions, and the provision for tribal incorporation all 
head in this same direction of Indian use of Indian lands. The only 
chance of economic security and racial salvation for the Indians as a 
whole lies in achieving economic sufficiency on the land. 

The Act itself does not offer a complete solution of the 
problem. The entire administration of Indian affairs must be bent to 
this end. Old policies and views must be reexamined and realigned. 
Among the most important tools for working out economic self-sufficiency 
are education and extension, and both of these activities must be 
searchingly examined in the light of the new policy and its goal. 

The General Educati on Problem 

From the start of Indian ad- been constantly emphasized by 

ministration, and especially since the Indian Service and the Indian 

the passage of the general Allot- welfare groups. In general, how- 

ment Act of 1887, education has ever, education of Indians was 



8 



88744 



looked upon for many years as hav- 
ing for its chief goal the train- 
ing of Indians to disappear, Edu- 
cation was to "be the principal 
means of assimilation, and the goal 
of assimilation was to absorb the 
Indian population so that it would 
be impossible to tell an Indian 
from a white man except by his color, 
and.no doubt- that itself would ul- 
timately disappear and be engulfed 
in the white blood stream. 

The new Indian policy, of 



The Navaj o Prob lem 

This question is being acutely 
faced on the Navajo Reservation, 
where the new "day schools" are to 
be real community centers, primar- 
ily concerned with the fundamental 
economic and social problems of the 
Navaj os. Child education will not 
be their dominant function, but 
rather the creation and focusing 
of group thought and group activity 
on the pressing problems of erosion 
control, stock reduction, grazing 
management, public health, social 
organization, relations to white 
culture and the intensifying and 
widening of Navajo economic activ- 
ities in such enterprises as sub- 
sistence faming and arts and crafts, 
as well as the maintenance of the 
native Navajo culture. 



coarse, has quite thoroughly dis- 
placed this naive theory of assimila- 
tion,. "Assimilation" has ceased to 
"be an important question and has "been 
replaced by the sharper and infinitely 
more real issue of economic and spirit- 
ual salvation. There is no longer any 
reason to think in terms of a conven- 
tional white education for the Indians. 
Far more important to us is the ques- 
tion - What type of education will 
"best fit the Indians to cope with 
their own environment and to adjust 
their changing culture to a dominant 
white culture? 



As An Example 

The Navajo program, already well 
on in its initial stages, will be an 
immensely important proving- ground 
for Indian education as a whole. It 
seems clear now that to bring about 
effective use of Indian land "by In- 
dians we must greatly "broaden and 
enrich our vocational education pro- 
gram. And we must put the main em- 
phasis not on fitting Indians to en- 
ter into the white man's industrial 
world, in competition with the white 
worker and the unemployed, hut on 
fitting them to enter into their 
own world and make it a success. 
Clearly we must somehow or other 
"bring to all Indians who have or will 
have land a practical and common- 
sense training in land use, whether 
"by farming, livestock raising or for- 
estry. 



Federal Indi an Day Schools ? 



But how shall we "bring this 
training to so many individuals.? 
Under the 0' Mai ley- John son Act, 
there will probably be increased 



effort to put Indian children into 
public schools. In many places, pro- 
bably, this is unavoidable. In many, 
other places, especially where there 



9 



88744 



are homogeneous groups of Indians, 
we should consider whether it 
would not he "better to create Fed- 
eral Indian day schools comparable 
to those on the Navajo Reservation, 



directed especially to the local 
economic and cultural problems of 
the Indians themselves instead of 
trying to mould them to a conven- 
tional white man's pattern. 



Continued Vocational Training 



Whether the Indian child goes 
to a Federal or a State school, he 
should by all means, after the age 
of fourteen, have an opportunity for 
vocational education. This vocation- 
al education should be localized and 
simplified as much as possible, using 
existing day school plants as far as 
possible, or State agricultural high 
schools, or special training camps 
such as the Leader Training Camps, 
or small informal groups and clubs. 
The boarding school type of vocational 
institution is too costly and too 
formalized to meet our particular 
need. 

A number of German and Austrian 
states have worked out an interest- 



ing program of so-called "continua- 
tion schools" for boys from fourteen 
years up and for men up to twenty-five 
or thirty. The average peasant child 
has finished his formal schooling by 
his fourteenth year. The educational 
authorities have provided the "contin- 
uation schools" in order to give boys 
and men short courses in practical 
agriculture. These schools make use 
of existing school facilities and draw 
on extension workers and others to 
supplement the regular teaching staff. 
The work is practical; the courses 
last from three to six months and are 
adapted to strictly local problems 
and conditions and to the circumstances 
under which the student lives and 
works for his daily bread. 



Agricul tural And Home Ext ension Work 



Equally vital as school work, 
in developing the new land-use pro- 
gram, vail be the job of extension. 
So long as land policy was dominated 
by the preordained loss of land en- « 
tailed by the allotment system and 
by the leasing of vast areas of Indian 
land to whites, extension work would 
unavoidably have a circumscribed 
field, might even ultimately have 
disappeared with the disappearance 
of Indian lands. 

Now the new land-use program 
will throw great burdens on our ex- 
tension service and call sharply for 



its rapid enlargement and enrichment. 
We must assume that land will not be 
purchased for Indians to lease to 
whites; every acre bought must be 
used by Indians. The purchase pro- 
gram will therefore give extension 
an important new job in developing 
these lands for Indian use. 

The gradual curtailment and 
ultimate abolition of leasing and 
the development of Indian farming, 
stock raising and forestry operations 
on -a wide front will demand a great 
increase in extension. 



10 



88744 



The Indian credit system, to 
be effective, will demand car ef til 
supervision and the jaakiag of de-r 
tailed farm management plans, the 
organization of Indian stock asso- 
ciations, and the development of 
many economic enterprises, together 
with housing projects and the pur- 
chase of livestock, farm equipment, 
seed and many other things. Here 
again, extension, including home 
development, will play a vital 
role. 

Extension will be called upon 



to take a large part in the develop- 
ment of many phases of the agricul- 
tural education program sketched 
above, including the training of 
Indians to pia.y an important part 
in the extension work itself. 

The above discussion gives only 
a few indications of the far-reach- 
ing reorientation forced upon many 
Indian Service activities by the 
Wheeler-Howard Act.- It may suggest 
also the greatly increased respon- 
sibilities and opportunities which 
that Act opens up, both to Indians 
and to the Indian Service personnel. 



A WORD ABOUT THE JECW " OUTSTANDING AGENCIES " 

The July 15 issue of INDIANS AT WOEK carried a brief article on "out- 
standing agencies" engaged in IECW. Some objections have been received from 
agencies omitted from the list. Fortunately - and we appreciate it - the ob- 
jections were mild. All of the Superintendents who commented on their omission 
advanced excellent reasons for their inclusion. 

We admit fallibility and have undoubtedly overlooked agencies that 
are doing - and have done - excellent work. We don't want to. Monthly reports 
from the Superintendents - not too general or too long - will help us. The 
reports of the supervisors are invariably good from standpoint of accuracy and 
writing. 

Necessarily, we have to judge on the amount of field work done - the 
production end is very important. We also judge on employment of Indians in 
supervisory positions, the proportion of bosses to enrolled men, social advance- 
ment (a very general term, varying in application from jurisdiction to jurisdic- 
tion) and the like. To get all these factors into one grading, and to allow for 
the great variation in the size of the projects was a hard, and necessarily a 
generalized sort of undertaking. 

We want to be fair to everyone. It is difficult sometimes to appreci- 
ate the problems field men encounter on their reservations. They frequently 
accept, as ordinary, routine problems which are perplexing and complex and think 
no more of them after satisfactory settlement. 

We want the field, to understand that we do appreciate the work being 
done and that omission from the list as reported does not imply inadequacy of 
performance or management. 

JOHN COLLIEH 



11 



33744 



TII3 DRIVE EOR 1 171)1 AIT EMPLOYMEN T 

The drive for employment of Indians in the Indian Service has 
gone vigorously ahead this year. There are 5,325 persons, Indians and 
whites, holding regular classified positions in the Indian Service. Of 
these, 1,785 are Indians. 489 of these Indians have "been appointed this 
fiscal year. 

Including the regular Indian Service positions mentioned above 
and likewise appointments to temporary emergency positions under Emergency 
Conservation and Public Works and appointments to the Alaska Division, a 
total of 3,214 Indians have been appointed through the Washington Office. 
Of these, 1,882 entered on duty since July 1, 1933. 

20,017 is the total number of Indians reported employed in all 
branches of Indian work - regular, irregular labor, and emergency - as of 
June 30, 1934. 12,203 of these are employed on Emergency Conservation Work 
Of this number, 504 were appointed through the Washington Office to respons 
ble positions, and the remaining 11,599 were enrolled from the field. 594 
of the 604 appointments were made since July 1, 1933. The increase in 
Public Works activities has almost doubled irregular labor employment in 
the field. Last year 3,398 irregular laborers were carried on agency pay- 
rolls. This year the figure is 6,108. Not all, but a large majority of 
these are Indians. 

5,906 have been placed in positions outside the Indian Service 
through the Indian Employment Division. 

12 



88744 



Opportunities For Indians 



While the bulk of the Indians 
(figures mentioned above) continue 
to fill minor positions, Indians 
are also found in the whole range 
of positions in the Service, save 
only as doctors and engineers. The 
larger groups in the regular posi- 
tions are found among teachers and 
clerks. The Emergency Conservation 
Work and Public Works activities 
have given opportunity for many In- 
dians to win promotion from the 
ranks to positions of varying de- 
grees of administrative responsi- 
bility. 1401 Indians hold posi- 
tions in Emergency Conservation 
Work and Public Works of the fore- 
man level or above and in clerical 
positions. All but 10 of these 
were made this year. 

By Presidential Order this 
year all Indian Service positions 
under Civil Service are open to In- 
dians by noncompetitive examination. 



The Civil Service Corciriission has 
likewise approved a maximum salary 
of $1200 a year instead of the 
former $720 for Indian Assistants 
and permits employment as Indian 
Assistant to count for experience 
in classified positions. This 
latter step provides a means for 
Indians otherwise qualified and 
lacking only experience to qualify 
under Schedule B for regualr Civil 
Service positions as vacancies oc- 
cur. In the Washington Office the 
Indian Employment Division has set 
up a file for Indian applicants as 
a step in carrying out that provi- 
sion of the Wheeler- Howard Act 
which requires that Indians be 
given first consideration in the 
filling of vacancies. Definite 
plans are under way for extended 
in-service training, as well as 
for educational opportunities 
through scholarship loans, so that 
Indians may fill the more responsi- 
ble positions of the Service t 



Work Of The India n Employment D ivi sion Of The Indian Office 



During the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1934, the Indian Employ- 
ment Division has been instrumental 
in placing directly, or in coopera- 
tion with the national Reemployment 
Service -and various State employ- 
ment services, 5,900 Indians in po- 
sitions owtside the Indian Service. 
The total number of such outside 
placements exceeded the correspond- 
ing number for the previous fiscal 
year by 2,682. A large proportion 
of these were doubtless temporary 
and were in connection with various 



emergency projects financed by the 
Federal government. 1,623 were 
household positions filled through 
our offices in Kansas City, Mis- 
souri; Phoenix, Arizona; Tucson, 
Arizona; Los Angeles, California; 
and Oakland, California. 

Much of the time of our Em- 
ployment Agents in the field has 
been devoted to recruiting compe- 
tent Indians for the Indian Ser- 
vice, particularly Emergency Con- 
servation Work and Public Works. 



13 



88744 



dian Service positions. 

In the Washington Office the 
Indian Employment Division has set 
up a file of Indian applicants 
classified according to their 
qualifications for positions in the 
Service and for certain types of 
outside employment, regarding which 
requests are occasionally received 
from private employers who wish to 
employ Indians. 



* * * * 



The total number of Indians placed 
in the Indian Service, largely 
through the efforts of our Employ- 
ment Agents, after investigation of. 
their qualifications in the case of 
skilled and semi-skilled personnel, 
was 3,584. Of these, 2,194 were 
placed on Emergency Cone rvation 
Work; 118 on Public Works- Construct- 
ion; 678 on Public Works-Roads; 189 
on Pdblic Works- Irrigation; 330 on 
Civil Works; and 75 in regular In- 

PROGRAM CP THE SOUTHWEST INDIAN SERVICE CONFERENCE 

The Reprice N.ava.i o Vocational School T Port Win gate . Hew Mexico 

Monday, August 27: Morning Session: WHAT ARE THE ECOHOMIC, SOCIAL, AHD 

CULTURAL HEEDS OE THE SOUTHWEST 
INDIANS? (Commissioner Collier will 
have direct charge of this program) 

Afternoon Session: Informal discussion. 

Evening Session: The Wheeler-Howard Act. 

Tuesday, August 28: Morning Session: WHAT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM SHALL BE 

DEVELOPED? 
Afternoon Session: Round Tables. 

Wednesday, August 29: Morning Session: WHAT ARE THE ESSENTIAL ANTHROPO- 
LOGICAL EACTORS IN THE SOUTHWEST 
PROGRAM? 

Afternoon Session: Round Tables. 

Thursday, August 30: Morning Session: WHAT CAN WE DO TO PROMOTE AND MAIN- 
TAIN HEALTH IN THE INDIAN SOUTHWEST? 
Afternoon Session: Indian Service Responsibility 

for a Social Hygiene Program. 
Application of Present Knowledge 
of Nutrition to Racial Groups. 

Eriday, August 31: Morning Session: Health Problems. 

Afternoon Session: Round Tables. 

Saturday, September 1: Morning Session: HOW SHALL WE ADMINISTER AND OPER- 
ATE THE INDIAN SERVICE PROGRAM IN 
THE SOUTHWEST? 
Afternoon Session: Continue morning discussion. 

A detailed program can be obtained from Mr. Ti singer, Supervisor of Indian Educa- 
tion, Gallup, New Mexico. 



14 



8874-1 



SEE pi APPQIFIMEIjTj TO SUPMOTMENCIES 

The past fortnight has seen three new appointments to 
Superintendences. These are of Mr. Robert Yellowtail who entered 
on duty gs Superintendent of the Crow Agtency on August 1, Mr. 
Ralph Fredenberg who became Superintendent of the Menominee Indian 
Reservation on August 16, and Miss Alida C. Bowler who will assume 
office at the Carson Indian School and Reservation on September 1. 

Mr. Yellowtail and Mr. Rredenberg are both Indians. 
Tnere are now seven Indian Agency Superintendents, four of whose 
appointments have been made during the present administration. 

The appointment of Mr. Yellowtail is unique in that it 
came as a result of a referendum by his tribe as to whether he 
should be given the job or not. This was the first time in his- 
tory when the Indians had been given a vote on the choice of their 
superintendent. 

Commissioner Collier put the question up to the tribe 
when local interests claimed that Mr. Yellowtail would not be ac- 
ceptable to the majority of the Indians. .The vote was taken with 
secret ballots and the result was that 588 Indians of the 689 
voted for their fellow tribesman.' 

Although Mr. Yellowtail was the chosen candidate of his 
tribe, his appointment to office was through regular Civil Ser- 
vice channels. In April of this year, on recommendation of the 



15 



88744 



Civil Service Commission, the President extended the privilege of 
noncompetitive examination to Indians to include all positions in 
the Indian Service. Mr. Yellowtail is the first Indian to he ap- 
pointed to the position of Agency Superintendent under this new 
Civil Service ruling. 

Mr. Yellowtail has never "before held a government job, 
although he has been prominent in politics. In 1930 he ran for 
the State Senate, to be defeated by only thirty-nine votes. In 
1926 he was nominated for Congress and again lost by a close mar- 
gin. He served on the Committee of One Hundred on Indian pol- 
icies which was appointed by former Secretary Work in 1924. He 
relates that in a former administration he was offered the Super- 
intendency of his reservation but refused it to devote himself to 
his ranch. He lives on the reservation and raises cattle and 
horses. 

Mr. Fredenberg was born -and has spent practically all 
his life among the people whose Superintendent he has now become. 
He was educated in the Catholic Mission School at Keshena, Wis- 
consin, the State public schools of Wisconsin, and the Haskell In- 
stitute, and Indian Service school at Lawrence, Kansas, where he 
received special business training. Indian Service experience is 
not new to Mr. Fredenberg. He was first employed as a clerk in 
the Menominee Indian Mills at Neopit, Wisconsin. Later he went 
into business for himself but returned to Government service to 



16 



88744 



engage in personnel work at the Menominee Mills, employing 
Menominee Indians in work connected with mill operations. 

Daring practically all of his adult life Mr. Fredenberg 
has "been active in the councils of the Menominee Trihe. As 
Chairman of the Menominee Indian delegations he is well known in 
Washington to members of Congress for his energetic work in pro- 
moting the interests of the Menominee. In Wisconsin he is 
equally well known to leading citizens of the State interested 
in Indian welfare. On his frequent visits to Washington, Mr. 
Fredenberg has made himself familiar with the operation of the 
Indian Office and with the official records relating to Menom- 
inee affairs. This advance information will stand him in good 
stead in the new work he is undertaking as Superintendent of 
the Menominee jurisdiction. 

Miss Bowler 1 s appointment is regarded in educational 
and Indian Administration circles as one of far reaching import- 
ance to Indians of Nevada and adjoining States. Her active 
career along welfare lines dates from the time of her graduation 
from the University of Illinois, where she received Bachelor of 
Arts and Master of Arte degrees. 

Her first position was that of psychologist for the 
Ohio Bureau of Juvenile Research. She next became instructor of 
Psychology at Ohio State University. 

The World War developed to interrupt her v/ork in Ohio, 

17 



88744 



and she was sent as relief worker for the American Red Cross, to 
France and Rumania. 

When she returned from overseas she continued in the 
Red Cross Service as director of the U. S. Veterans' Hospital in 
Palo Alto, where she installed psychiatric social service at the 
time the hospital was converted into a mental treatment hospital* 

Miss Bowler's initiation into Indian work came when she 
was made California Secretary of the American Indian Defense As- 
sociation in 1925. For this organization she did field work for 
two years in Southern California. 

From 1027 to 1930 she was Secretary to the Chief of 
Police and Director of Public Relations in the Los Angeles Po- 
lice Department. Recently at the Children's Bureau of the De- 
partment of Labor, Miss Bowler has been in charge of delinquency 
studies in the interests of Federal juvenile offenders. She 
dates her interest in Indian problems to the period in 1925 
when she worked for the American Indian Defense Association. She 
recalls that on one of her first trips to an Indian rancheria 
in Southern California, she was confronted "by a very old and very 
sage Indian who inquired as to her mission. Miss Bowler ex- 
plained that she had come to make a study of Indian life. Fixing 
her with a stony, impenetrable gaze he grunted, "Hmm - study a- 
gain-when you do something?" She resolved that when the oppor- 
tunity presented itself she would demonstrate that accompli sh- 



18 



88744 



merit was part of her purpose* 

The Carson Indian School near Carson City is one of the 
six larger hoarding schools that will continue in operation un- 
der the new educational program for substituing day schools for 
boarding schools. It will "be carried on for those small children 
who have no home and must have institutional care, and for the 
older pupols who will receive a specialized training, either in 
vocational activities, or for leadership among their people* 

Miss Bowler will direct the educational program at the 
school and in all its phases collaborate it with the general so- 
cial welfare of the Indians, 

TRANSFERS OF SUPER I UTEi\T)ENTS TO BECOME EFFECTIVE SEPTEMBER 1 
Four transfers of Superintendents have recently been 
made and will become effective on September 1, They are as 
follows: Superintendent Francis J, Scott will leave Turtle Mountain 
to go on duty at Leupp; Superintendent Theodore Hall will go from 
Leupp to Sells; Superintendent Jasper W. Elliott will move from 
Sells and take up the work at Fort Belknap and Superintendent 
human W, Shotwell, now at Fort Belknap, will go to Flathead. Super- 
intendent Charles E. Coe, now at Flathead, will retire, 



19 



88744 



IN DIAN HOMES AT MISSION AGENCY 

Some examples of a program of new housing and water facilities 
for Indians being carried on "by Superintendent Dady of Mission Agency is 
contained in the following excerpt from a letter "by the Superintendent to 
the Washington Office. 

In addition to completing a splendid four-room rock house (see 
picture) we developed a nearby spring for domestic water, free of any 
contamination; also constructed a darn to the left of the house, putting in 




Type Of Indian Home Being Built On The Mission Agency 

a sieve, pipe, and gate valve which we found lying around loose on one of 
the reservations. Tom Osway is now able to irrigate seven acres instead 
of one-half acre. He now has a complete set-up and there is no reason why 
he cannot earn a living for himself and a family of small children. An- 

20 



88744 



other rock house at Mesa Grande will soon "be completed. The one at San 
Manuel is roofed but not completed inside. The rock house at Morongo is 
completed and the old couple provided for are very happy. They are using 
their old home as a storage house, moving it to the rear of the new house. 
We have walled in their well so that it is now sanitary and with a small 
apricot grove (six hundred trees) this old couple can make a living. 

We have. also built quite a number of houses under the reimbur- 
sable plan, although not just the type of house I would like to erect, be- 
cause I don't want to put up frame houses. Still they were urgently need- 
ed. Fnen we are able to provide more suitable homes, these houses can be 
converted into barns so that the cost of erection will not be lost. We 
are using the native material such as stone (where stone is plentiful) and 
logs. Where neither logs nor stone are available, for example Torres- 
Martinez, adobe is used. 

We were surprised and delighted in driving a well at Soboba. , 

when we developed a flow of water which is the largest from any well in 
our territory. The well has a capacity of 1,500 gallons a minute. It will 
be sufficient to care for the full needs of the enlarged acreage at Soboba. 

Altogether I feel that we have had a very profitable and satisfactory 

year due to the Commissioner's firm stand in supporting us and giving 

us liberal appropriations as far as he was able. 



21 



88744 



SAM CARLOS APACHES FIGHT THE DROUGHT 



^ Claude C. Cornwall 
Supervisor, Indian Emergency Conservation Work 

(The August 1 issue of INDIANS AT WORK described the manner in 
which the Sioux Indians are disposing of the "drought cattle" of the Plains 
States. The following article deals with the effort "being made to save a 
tribal herd and individually-owned cattle on a Southwestern Reservation.) 

In front of the San Carlos Agency office is a tribal assembly. 
More than fifty Indians, representatives of the various communities, are 
gathered together in a circle, under the shade of a large tree on the 
lawn. In the center of the group is Superintendent Kitch and beside him 
stands Tom Dosela, interpreter and spokesman. These Indians have come 
together to discuss a serious situation. It concerns their cattle and 
the drought. There was no snow in the mountains or on the ranges last 
winter and there have been no summer rains. The feed has disappeared and 
m many places springs have dried up and the water holes are empty. What 
is to be done? 

Cattle - Apache Wealth 



These Apaches are proud of 
their individual cattle holdings. 
For the past ten years they have 
watched them grow and increase both 
in numbers and in quality. They 
have rounded them up in the spring 
and in the fall, have branded the 
calves and have cut out the steers 
at the time of cattle sales. This 
is no ordinary herd of range stock. 
These are choice cattle, carefully 



selected, free from dogies, culls 
and mavericks. In any normal cat- 
tle year with a decent price for 
their product, this herd would go 
a long way toward producing a liv- 
ing for these people. They know 
it. Cattle sales of the past few 
years have proven that these are 
cattle of desirable quality and 
they have a high rating among the 
buyers. 



22 



88744 



Bat the drought has struck and 
persists with a parching intensity. 
And here are these choice cattle, 
dying on the range, fine cows with 
little new calves, the hope of fu- 
ture profits, moving weakly and 
gaunt from the dry water holes over 
the "blistering mesas, many of them 
too nearly exhausted to make the 
next watering place. 



The IBCW program has trail t new 
tanks and developed the existing 
springs, tut due to this drought 
these tanks have not yet had any 
water run into them and the newly 
developed springs, on which they 
had counted, are gradually ceas- 
ing to flow. The Indians have con- 
structed cattle driveways down to 
the rivers and have moved their 




Typical Indian Cattle Of The Kind To Be Saved From The 
Drought At San Carlos 



For the past two months these 
Indians have fought a hard tattle. 
They have ridden over the reserva- 
tion and spotted every water hole 
and spring. They have dug wells, 
deepened the outlets of the springs 
and sunk holes in the river teds. 

The Emergency Offer .Of The Government 
Superintendent Kitch explains to them that the United States 



herds from one vanishing water 
hole to the next. Ever hopeful, 
they have watched the skies for a 
sign of rain. Their dancers and 
medicine men have performed their 
rituals and cereominies. Rain will 
come - tut can they hold out until 
it does? 



23 



88744 



Government is familiar with their 
situation. This drought not only- 
affects their reservation but it is 
widespread over the southwest. 
Representatives of the County 
Agencies will advise with them and 
the Government stands ready to give 
them help. Any cows or calves 




The Tribal Meeting To Decide 
The Pate Of The Cattle 



which are too weak to survive are 
to be shot down and put out of 
their misery. This will conserve a 
little feed and water and will pro- 
bably be the means of saving the 
rest of the herd. It is an extreme 
measure but is the only way out. 
The Indians, however, will not 
stand to lose all because they will 
be paid four, eight or twelve dol- 
lars a head for the cattle disposed 
of, the rate depending upon the 
quality. This money can then be 
used to buy feed and to haul water 
for the others, 

Tom Dosela, interpreter, who 
is probably the most familiar with 
this situation of any of the In- 
dians, because he has been direct- 
ing an IECW crew for the past month, 



patrolling Coolidge Lake in an at- 
tempt to keep the cattle from mir- 
ing into the muddy bottom of the 
fast receding reservoir, explains 
in Apache the proposal of the Fed- 
eral Government to give aid. Re** 
luctantly the Indians accept this 
proposal. But they want this to 
be done with extreme care. They 
appoint committeemen from each 
community to work with the County 
agents and to see to it that no 
cattle are killed if they have a 
chance to live. They have fought 
hard to build up these herds. 
Their efforts to save them in this 
extreme situation make it difficult 
for them to be reconciled even to 
the loss of a single animal. They 
have patrolled the reservoirs and 
dragged cattle from the mud when 
they have been mired down. They 
have driven these same cattle up 
the Gila river to where they have 
gouged out water holes in the sand 
of the river bed. The Government 
is kind to make this offer and they 
are glad to accept it. But the 
rain will soon come and most of the 
cattle will still be able to live. 

The assembly breaks up and 
scatters into little groups. Each 
Indian seems to desire to tell the 
members of his committee personally 
that he wants them to use caution 
and to save all the cattle they 
can. Superintendent Kitch and the 
stockmen, Erown and Young, assure 
them that action will be taken 
only in extreme cases, and that 
they will be paid. The offer of 
money interests the Indians. But 
they would rather save their cattle. 



24 



88744 



4 STUDY OP CRICKET DEPREDATIONS ON POET HALL m £N IECW PROJECT 

Ey H. A. Ireland 
Extension Agent, Indian Service 

The third annual war against crickets on the Port Hall Indian Res- 
ervation is over. 

Experience with "Mormon" crickets, covering a period of two years, 
on the Port Hall Indian Eeservation and other sections of southern and east- 
ern Idaho left a question in the minds of many people as to how much of a 
menace to crops the so-called crickets really constitute and how much harm 
they would do if left unmolested. The third year's experience seems to 
have quite definitely answered the question, at least for years like 1934. 

The History Of the I nfestation 



No one knows when Mormon crick- 
ets first appeared on the Port Hall 
Reservation "but old settlers tell 
of seeing them in large numbers 
many years ago. No one knows what 
happened to reduce their numbers 
to such a degree that they were en- 
tirely unnoticed year after year 
until 1931. In that year, however, 
sheep herders and others spending 
much time on the range observed 
large numbers of the insects scat- 
tered over the sand hills of the 
Reservation. They did not know 
what they were and did not report 
them; and, as the crickets remained 
in the hills, no apparent damage 
was done and there was no alarm. 

In the spring of 1932 when 



crickets were discovered in immense 
numbers near the cropped areas of 
the Port Hall irrigation project 
and other sections of the Reserva- 
tion, moving rapidly in the di- 
rection of the farms, their identi- 
ty was quickly established. The 
result was a near panic among own- 
ers of farms all over the Reserva- 
tion and even many miles away. 

The tremendous effort made by 
Indian workers in cooperation with 
County, State, and Government 
agencies for three months during the 
summer of 1932 to destroy the crick- 
ets and prevent them from entering 
fields on which crops were growing, 
and its results, has elsewhere 
been told. Literally tons of crick- 



26 



08744 



ets were destroyed in traps or by 
"burning or poisoning, and the^ sur- 
vivors retreated toward the hills 
and gradually disappeared. 

A few crickets got into fields 
and gardens late in the season of 
1932 "but these did little damage, 



seeming not to feed heavily, and a 
question arose in the minds of some 
of the workers as to whether the 
game had been worth the ammunition; 
whether the crickets would have 
done any serious damage if they had 
been left alone. 



The Crickets C onstitution A Menace 



A still larger infestation in 
1933 than in 1932 was considered 
possible if not probable, in spite 
of the numbers of crickets de- 
stroyed, as many eggs were laid in 
lands adjoining farms. It was sup- 
posed that young crickets, hatching 
in such locations, might enter the 
fields as soon as they began to 
move, so preparations were made to 
begin the fight on them as soon 
as possible after hatching. 

Dais plan was carried out with 
some IECW funds, and no crickets of 
any consequence got into the fields 
until late in the season of 1933, 
when adults came down from the 
hills in great numbers in the Lit- 
tle Indian and Ross Fork districts, 
and, in spite of all efforts made 
to stop them, entered gardens and 
fields of wheat, potatoes and sug- 
ar beets. As in the previous year, 
however, damage to crops was small. 
The crickets did not seem to feed 
at all on beets or potatoes, and 
but sparingly on alfalfa and wheat. 
In the Ross Fork district a little 
damage was done to gardens but this 
was negligible. 

The result of the two years 1 
experience was that people rather 
generally became quite conservative 
regarding the cricket menace. It 



was mentioned that the losses caused 
hy the insects in the two years had 
been but a very small fraction of a 
per cent of the cost of combat- 
ting them, and that all the excite- 
ment about them had been only a 
false alarm. Hence, it was diffi- 
cult to arouse any interest m 
crickets in the spring of 1934 
when they began to hatch a month 
earlier than usual. Farmers m tne 
Little Indian districts where crick- 
ets had been the worst in 1933, re- 
fused to become alarmed even though 
the insects were hatching in large 
numbers on land immediately adja- 
cent to their farms. "They didn't 
do any harm last year", was the 
usual comment regarding the situa- 
tion. "Suppose we should let them 
go and a dry season should cause 
the feed on the range to fail?" was 
asked. "Might they not come into 
the fields and do real damage?" 
The question was answered a little 
later. 

Funds with which to do any 
work early in the season were lack- 
ing and crickets hatched and began 
their growth unmolested. The 
early migrations were away from^the 
farms but, comparatively early in 
the summer, hordes of the insects 
began to appear in the irrigated 
areas. They had come for food and 



27 



88744 



the effects of their depredations 
were soon easily apparent. 

About the same time reports 
were received of serious damage be- 
ing done in Fremont County where 
crickets were much more numerous 
than at Fort Hall, and the writer, 
accompanied by fit, W. E. Shull, Ento- 
mologist of the University of 
Idaho, went to that County to see if 
the reports were true. They were. 
People of Fremont County had like- 
wise become skeptical about the 
seriousness of cricket invasions 
but now they were being shown ample 
evidence of what could happen. 

A potato field near St. Anthony 
was visited. It had been stripped 
almost completely bare, every leaf 
and all the more tender parts of 
the stems being eaten; white clover 
in a pasture had been eaten liter- 



ally into the ground; in a wheat 
field the ground was "crawling" 
with crickets and loss promised to 
be complete unless something was 
done very soon to stop the work of 
the pests, which were climbing the 
stems of the wheat and cutting them 
off below the heads. 

On the Fort Hall Reservation 
the damage again was slight but 
quick action on the part of good 
IECW crews armed with dust guns was 
responsible for that. The inten- 
tions of the crickets in the wheat 
field of John Jorgensen and the al- 
falfa fields of Eoy Ingawanup and 
Will Twitchell, as well as in other 
places, were so evident that in the 
minds of those who saw conditions 
there is no longer any question as 
to the need of quick action and 
strong measures when crickets ap- 
pear* in force. 



Fort Hall Has Escape d Damage Be 

The writer feels certain that 
control measures used on the Fort 
Hall reservation during 1932 and 
'33 greatly reduced the threat of 
the crickets and brought them 
fairly well within control. He al- 
so believes that, without doubt, if 
no such measures had been used in 
those years crickets would have 
been so numerous in 1934 that con- 
trol would have been impossible and 
that injury to crops would have 
been serious, particularly in view 
of the prevailing dry weather dur- 
ing the spring and summer of 1934 
that caused vegetation on which 
crickets feed to dry up early in 
the season. 

There still seems to be much 



s_e Of Prevention Under IECW 

to learn as to habits of Mormon 
crickets. They are erratic, appar- 
ently, in their feeding and they 
seem to prefer many species of 
weeds that are of no economic value 
on the range to any of the cul- 
tivated crops. However, the dry 
season of 1934 has brought out the 
fact that crickets are heavy feed- 
ers on certain farm crops under 
some circumstances, and the neces- 
sity of control measures can not be 
questioned. 

In connection with cricket 
control the importance of prompt- 
ness has been established. Work 
early in the season will not only 
prevent damage by the crickets that 
are destroyed early but will make 



28 



any situation nore easily met later. 
Bands of crickets are more con- 
densed just after hatching and move 
more slowly than is the case later 
and the young insects seem to he 
more susceptihle to the effects of 
poison than the mature forms, hence 
the value of early dusting is 
greater in comparison than that 
done later in the season, cost and 
labor considered. 

The cost of cricket control 



work on the Fort Hall reservation 
has been large in the three years 
that it has been carried on. The 
damage done by crickets has been 
almost negligible; but the writer 
does not believe that the money 
has been wasted, as losses that 
might have been sustained, if no 
control measures had been taken, 
could easily have greatly ex- 
ceeded the cost of control. 



The Cover Design . The cover design of this issue of INDIANS AT 
WORK was submitted by an enrolled man in Indian Emergency Conservation 
work, Mr. John Needham, Red Lake Agency. Superintendent Bitney, trans- 
mitting the sketch, sends the following explanation: "The symbols used 
portray Constance (sun's rays), happiness (sky clouds), and everlasting 
life (butterfly)." 



29 



88744 



FIELD DAY AT LAC DU FLAMBE AU IECW CAMP 
By J. H. Mitchell 
Supervisor of Indian Emergency Conservation Work 

All day long on July 28 the Indian reservation settle- 
ment of Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin, was teeming with activity and 
ablaze with holiday spirit, the occasion being a Field Day spon~ 




Dancers at the Lac du Flambeau Field Day 
sored by the IECW Camp situated on the shores of beautiful Flambeau 
Lake. Conservation workers and their families from all Northern 
Wisconsin reservations were invited, and more than 2,500 were in at- 
tendance. Truckload after truckload of enrolled men, with banners 
waving, began to arrive early in the morning. One hundred fifty 

30 



38744 



came from Lac Court Or ei lies; another unit of thirty came from 
Odenah. From far and near men, women and children poured into camp 
to participate in the most elahorate program ever arranged for the 
Indians in this jurisdiction. It was, indeed, a red letter day for 
the northern Wisconsin IECW men. 

At least a thousand white citizens, residents of near-by 
summer resorts, many of whom were prominent personages of other 
States, camo to witness the long list of athletic events scheduled 
for the day - a day that they will probably not soon forget. Officials 
and enrolled men of the Lac du Flambeau camp played host. A reception 
committee escorted all visitors through the camp and explained the 
Conservation program. Dinner and supper were served in cafeteria 
style to more than 1600 people. The camp hand provided music when- 
ever it could find an interval in a crowded program of athletic events, 
speech-making, and the mess hour. 



The Athletic Contests 



Improvised hut colorful 
flags, literally hundreds of them, 
skirted the edge of the camp in- 
closure. The program carried a 
variety of events so that the max- 
imum number of enrolled men could 
participate. While no national 
records were broken in the track 



meet (due to the heavy dust-laden 
track) the contestants showed 
real Indian form and prowess. It 
had all the color and atmosphere 
of an intercollegiate track meet, 
and the delegations cf competitors 
from the three reservations were 
out for blood. 



Hibes Eradi ca tion - A New Sport 



The track meet followed a 
band concert at 9:30 a.m. The 
100, 220 and 440 yard dash; the 



830 yard relay; the high jump; the 
running broad jump, and boxing 
contests filled the morning hours. 



31 



88744 



While all this was holding the 
crowd at the camp athletic field, 
out in the timber two blister rust 
crews, with no spectators present, 
were in deadly contest to deter- 
mine their relative efficiency in 
the eradication of the ribes - the 
plant carrier of blister rust, dreaded 
enemy of the forest. The judges 




Field Day, Lac du Flambeau 



decided to give 800 points to the 
Lac du Flambeau unit and 750 to 
the Lac Court Oreilles. Lac du 
Flambeau also won the trade meet 
by a margin of only three points. 
It won, too, the hotly contested 
baseball game with Lac Court 
Oreilles but not until it had 
run the game into an extra inning 
for a score of 5 to 4. 

In the afternoon came the wa- 
ter sports, with Lac du Flambeau 
taking first place in the canoe 
race. The log rolling, a sport in 
which the Indian is expert, was 



won hands down by the Lac Court 
Oreilles aggregation. ft 

Oratory was not wanting. Su- 
perintendent L. E. Baumgarten gave 
a felicitous address of welcome, 
to which Frank Smart, full-blood 
Indian, responded in traditional 
Indian eloquence. J. H. Mitchell, 
Supervisor, described briefly how 
the Indians had met the challenge 
of the President's Emergency Con- 
servation program. H. E. Mechling, 
a prominent citizen of Louisville, 
Kentucky and summer resident in 
northern Wisconsin, spoke appre- 
ciatively on behalf of the white 
population which had come out to 
participate in the program. 

The Indians' ceremonial dance 
in full and colorful Indian regal- 
ia, afforded a real treat to hun- 
dreds of visitors who had never be- 
fore witnessed such an interpreta- 
tion of the native art. To make 
the day perfect a dance was held 
that evening in the large mess 
hall, which was crowded to capac- 
ity. Here the Indian orchestra, 
inspired by the day's festivities, 
excelled itself. 

The camp manager, J. H. Broker, 
himself an Indian, sums up the festivi- 
ties as follows: 

"The field day event has cre- 
ated an added interest among the 
boys here. I have since noticed 
more have come out on the athlet- 
ic field to do something; so, 
whatever effort was put forth on 
last Saturday has assuredly taken 
root and is certain to result in 
better morale and production." 



32 



88744 



>«o ; ;.. hi » i • •• • 

' - •• A YEAR OF PROGRESS ... ■- . • r 

By William Stemihoh i } ■■ 
"One Of The Boys" 

The IECW has "been in operation on the Yakima Indian Reser- 
vation for one year and in review presents a picture of real inter- 
est. The program with its idea of relief came at a time when really 
needed. The depression played no favorites. The plan to furnish 
the Indians employment is highly commendable and its operation under 
the direct management of Superintendent C. R. Whitlock and Forest 
Supervisor T. L. Carter has proven to be a real success. But aside 
from furnishing a means of relief the program has given the Indian 
boys an opportunity to fit themselves to become permanently engaged 
in widely varied occupations necessary in reforestation work. 

The forest work, with its many branches, seems to fit in- 
to the life of the Indians. The out-doors ; the well provided liv- 
ing quarters, the good food, and the recreational features furnished 
them, have made them appreciate what they can do for themselves. 

In the fields of labor today are to be found Indian boys 
operating bulldozers, caterpillars, graders and compressors. We 
find them on trail location as rodmen, chainmen, and surveyors. 
They are to be found building miles of telephone lines and in the 
office on dispatching duty. We find them in the camp kitchens, 
learning the art of food preparation and serving. We find them 
driving trucks; we find them serving as camp assistants, camp and 

33 



88744 



group foremen. They are learning up-to-date logging methods with 
modern equipment, which will mean much to than when the time is ripe 
to harvest the valuable timber on the reservation. They are in the 
field doing pine beetle control work. You find them stationed as 
lookouts. The fire fighters have already shown their efficiency. 

The setting up of this huge working machine and keeping 
it up to efficient production has taken no small amount of effort, 
and hours of patience on the part of the departmental heads and no 
doubt they found some of the boys weak and lacking. But as a whole 
the boys have pioneered the movement with a determination to win, 
and have helped to make the idea of these tent cities a success. 

*********** 

"GOAT SONG" 

The following elegy on the passing of the goat from the 
overgrazed Navajo scene was composed by a member of the Navajo 
Tribal Council at the meeting last July when the reso ^ tl0 ^ t0 
continue goat reduction was passed. It was done if°*"™ rdS 
and music, on the spot by Mr. J. C. Morgan, Council member from 
larmington. We publish both versions with pride. 

A~ha~la~ne», tl'izi yazzie, a~ha~la~ne' 
Tiado nicai, tl'izi yazzie, a-ha-la-ne 

Nizadgo iniya nideh 

Aden nididal-go at' eh 
Aden nei nizago yadizini bigo nididel. 

Good-bye, little goats, goodbye 
Don't cry, little goats, goodbyr 

You* re going far away 

But you won't have to stay 
YouUl come back to us as mutton bye-and-bye. 



34 



88744 



IN DIAN COOK BOOK 

Arranged with alphabetical nicety (beans, beef, berries, 
bananas, cabbage, cucumbers and so on) there comes from Kiowa Agency 
what is probably one of the first Indian cook books. It is a modest 
mimeographed volume of twelve pages and it was prepared by Miss Dorothy 
W. Smith, Home Demonstration Agent. It contains thirty recipes of 
Kiowa dishes and, as well as its obvious rarity as a bibliographical 
find, the Office is of the opinion that it might well be recommended 
as an aid to culinary variety in any home. 

Miss Smith says in her brief foreword, "The Kiowa women 
are excellent cooks and are much interested in preparing the 
proper foods for their families. The recipes in this little book" 
let ar© foods that are found where the Kiov/as live, the only thing 
used in cooking that has to be traded for was sugar. Flour is 
used in some of the receipes. This is a flour made from corn, 
called sometimes cold flour." 

Do you know what bo aut is? Or tan a? Or Indian cu- 
cumber, or cheaten berries or Indian bologna? Some may skeptically 
wonder how bananas come to be native to the Kiowa country. 
These are Indi;ui bananas, so the Kiowas say. Those who wish to 
know ho-7 they grow and the secrets of gathering then, will find the 
information in Miss Smith's little book. Also the recipes for Indian 
Jello, Indian dried beef, green corn bread, and Indian tea among others. 



35 



88744- 



The Indian Office does not have available a supply of 
these "books for distribution. It is to "be booed, however, that 
Miss Smith's excellent enterprise in compiling native recipes is 
not a solitary venture and that other workers follow her example 
in other localities. A collection of such books would be a 
valuable addition to American Indian-iana and would probably add 
more piquancy to many American tables than a great many pages from 
routine recipe compilations. 



35 



88744 



I NDIA N FOREMEN RE 

Fencing at Fort Hall. The 

work this week consisted of : fifty 
four rods' of thick brush cut* forty 
rods rocky ground smoothed; ninety- 
four rods post set, wire stretched 
and fence completed; and two "braces, 
two deadmen set and one gate 'in- 
stalled; two miles of truck trails 
made by cutting trees and brush so 
as to get to the fencing work. The 
ground on which this fence is being 
built is very steep and rocky and 
some blasting has been necessary. 
R. W. Dixey, Group Foreman. 

New Dress Suit at Red Lake. 
Camp One of the Ponemah district 
has donned a new dress suit. The 
buildings are all completed with 
the construction and repair work. 
New foundations are installed, all 
buildings have been reenforced with 
steel rods to avoid danger of any' 
building collapsing. On the out- 
side all buildings are banked with 
logs and dirt. These banks are 
lined with rock to break the- water 
fall dripping from the roof. Each 
rock is painted white with the use 
of lime mixture. All that remains 
to be done is the doors to be in- 
stalled on the garage, stoves set 
up and a tool house finished. 

Two miles of work is now .being 
projected which consist of ditching 
of the old fire lines, A crew of 
twenty-four men is working at this 
project. 

The blister rust crew is now 
very near finished with its first 
1500 acres of eradication of the 



ON IECW PROJECTS 



white pine blister rust. S. S. 
Ournea u, Camp Manager . 

Relief At Pine Ridge . Trail 
work was nicely started when word 
was received that State relief cat- 
tle arrived at the railroad sta- 
tion which required immediate at- 
tention and care. A branding crew 
was organized and another crew to 
sinking well in the river bed 
which was sufficient to supply wa- 
ter for several hundred head of 
cattle. This project is termed 
under ERA and it was certainly 
a relief work as well as emergency. 
James Whitehall, Camp Manager. 

Fire At Fort B elknap . Last 
Wednesday at noon there was a small 
fire broke out in Wilson Park of 
Mission Canyon. Johnny McNeil re- 
ported the fire into Camp Head- 
quarters. There being only five 
men in camp including the cook's 
flunkies we took them and went up 
to the scene of the fire. It was 
only a small grass fire that had 
possibly been started by someone 
carelessly throwing away a lighted 
cigarette butt. It had not a 
chance to get a good start so was 
easily put out with shovels and 
water pumps but it might have 
turned out to be a real fire if 
it had not been reported as soon 
as it was. The grass and timber 
are extremely dry this time of 
the year due to the lack of moisture 
as we haven't had a rain for about 
a month. More signs will be placed 
in Mission Canyon and the tourists 
will be warned about this, as this 



37 



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small fire might have done serious 
damage if it had not "been caught, 
as soon as it was, Preston L. 
Ring , Camp Assistant . 

Fire Land At Rosebud . A crew 
of men are working on a fire lane 
around the fence line. This con- 
sists of brushing and plowing 
strips along the fence line. About 
a mile and a half has been com- 
pleted. 

Two groups of men are working 
on truck trails. Work is continu- 
ing on the truck trail west of camp 
which will connect a CWA project 
road. The road leading from camp 
to the lookout has been completed 
except for surfacing in some places. 
Harold Scbunk, Camp Assistant . 

Surprise At Colville . The 
world is full of surprises espec- 
ially in regard to fire fighting. 
The backbone of the nation is rep- 
resented in this particular in- 
stance. An elderly Indian woman, 
carrying a year-old child on' her 
back, fought and brought under con- 
trol a fire on the Spokane Reserva- 
tion. The IECW boys appeared on 
the scene later and they eulogized 
her cooperation with a forest 
staff in the prevention of forest 
fire. John A. Perkins . Camp Assist- 
ant. 

Hustle At Truxton Canon . Some 
of the men at our new base camp 
site have been on camp construction 
and the rest of the men were put to' 
work cutting posts for the "66" 
Highway Pence. When we bring a 



load of supplies up towards the 
northern part of the reservation, 
we can take back a loan of posts 
for the fence. This way we keep 
our men busy while moving our camp. 
It makes the truck drivers hustle 
to maize the rounds in a day, 
Nearly every day they work until 
nine o'clock at night. We hope to 
be well settled within a few weeks. 
However, moving a camp makes one 
doubt if things ever will be set- 
tled and working smoothly as they 
once were. Charles P. Barnard , 
Camp Assistant , Truxton Canon . 

Hard Job At Paiute . After 
the long lay off during the holi- 
days the boys were glad to get back 
to work and they really worked hard 
this 'week. They have just started 
to stretch the new' wire. It has 
proven to be quite a job as the 
country is very rough and the fence 
goes through a great many washes 
and over several hills. It is a 
hard job to get this wire stretched 
so that it will be tight, and yet 
be able to sag enough for the low 
places. William V. Le May;, Group 
Po reman . 

Hew Camp At Sho shone . We are 
establishing a new camp in Washakie 
Park proper this week. It is to 
be for the trail workers. We have 
picked a location for our main 
camp also and expect to have it 
moved in a few days. It will be a 
much better location, as there 
will be water and shade, and also 
as to work as we have completed 
the road to the mouth of the 
canyon. James P. Fox, Canro Assist- 
ant . 



38 



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